The fresh fresh situation and dataset arrive within

The fresh fresh situation and dataset arrive within

Following this second article, professionals complete the second brief questionnaire including a similar affairs due to the fact very first into the evaluation of the perpetrator. A last point worried participants’ number of political attention, political worry about-positioning towards 10-point remaining–right continuum, intercourse, many years, part of quarters and education.

People was indeed randomly allotted to certainly one of half a dozen experimental conditions derived from the 2 (perpetrator’s sex) ? step 3 (restoration tactic) between users factorial build.

All the measures performed within this investigation was in accordance with the moral requirements of federal browse committee along with the 1964 Helsinki endments.

Assessment of the political star

Players said their international emotions on fictitious politician with the an effective 10-area measure (step 1 = entirely negative so you can ten = completely self-confident) double, immediately following at the T1 (post-scandal) and when within T2 (post–protective reaction). The power of the newest defensive tactic inside the restoring profile is actually caught from the improvement in evaluation of protagonist.

Investigations of your politician’s communality and you can institution both before and after their otherwise their justification of the scandal

New participants evaluated the latest scandal culprit with the good 5-part size ranging from step 1 (not really) in order to 5 (considerably) double, once pursuing the scandal (T1) and when pursuing the perpetrator’s defensive response (T2). People rated the new perpetrator toward three adjectives for every on communality dimension (sincere, sensible and you may empathetic) and you may company dimension (determined, skilled and you can strong; e.grams., Bauer 2017 ). The brand new indicator constructed on new suggest items reached high enough accuracy: ? communality article-scandal = 0.80; ? communality article-reason = 0.74; ? company article-scandal = 0.63; ? institution blog post-excuse = 0.67.


Preliminary regression analyses like the politician’s elegance, respondents’ gender, respondents’ governmental orientation, respondents’ amounts of need for government and you will respondents’ standard regarding the comparative sincerity of women and you may males failed to yield any main nor communication affect brand new built variables. As such, they will not be considered during the after that analyses.

We tested H1 using a 3 (type of defensive tactic) ? 2 (perpetrator’s gender) ANOVA on the global attitude toward the politician after his/her defensive reaction including the previous attitude (T1) as a covariate. The hypothesised two-way interaction between the independent variables proved to be the only significant effect, F (2, 185) = 6.06; p = 0.003; ? 2 p = 0.06 (Figure 1 ). Further inspection of this interaction revealed that the ‘diffusion of responsibility with accusation of another person’ was effective only when used by the man, simple slope = 0.11, SE = 0.04, 95% CI [0.03, 0.19], whereas the ‘excuses with claims of mitigating circumstances’ was effective only when used by the woman, simple slope = 0.09, SE = 0.04, 95% CI [0.00, 0.17]. Finally, contrary to our expectations, ‘mortification with request for forgiveness’ did not vary its efficacy as a function of the politician’s gender, simple slope = 0.00, SE = 0.04, 95% CI [–0.08, 0.08].

Indicate international thinking toward a beneficial scandal culprit given that a purpose of his/their gender while the communicative tactic familiar with defend him/herself.

Regarding H2, the ANOVA including the agentic and communal dimensions measured at T2 as a repeated factor (and those measured at T1 as covariates) revealed the main effect of the repeated factor, F (1, 184) = 9.13, p = 0.003, ? 2 p = 0.05, signalling that the defensive reactions were globally more effective in improving the perpetrator agentic traits (M = 0.30, SD = 0.17) than the communal ones (M = 0.27, SD = 0.18). This analysis also elicited the two-way interaction between the type of defensive tactic and the repeated factor, F (1, 184) = 9.13, p 2 p = 0.14, indicating that the ‘diffusion of responsibility’ improved the evaluation of the perpetrator on agentic traits more than the other defensive tactics, that did not differ from each other at the LSD post-hoc test, whereas none of the tactics differed from each other as for the efficacy in improving the perceived perpetrator communality. In addition, the two-way interaction between the gender of the politician and the repeated factor, F (1, 184) = , p 2 p = 0.15 showed that the defensive reactions, irrespective of the type, improved the communality traits of the female politician (M = 0.31, SD = 0.19) more than those of the male one (M = 0.23; SD = 0.17), simple slope = 0.06, SE = 0.02, 95% CI [0.02, 0.10], whereas they were equally effective in improving the agentic traits of the male politician (M = 0.32, SD = 0.18) and those of the female one (M = 0.28, SD = 0.16), simple slope = 0.04; SE = 0.02, 95% CI [–0.01, 0.08].